The High-Rise Building Multiple Entry Vertical Escape Technology 


1968 - 2001
Archive

History will shows that:
THOUSANDS COULD HAVE SAVED THEIR LIVES IN THE WTC
abc_jet_hi_vert.jpg (22918 bytes)
ABC Picture

People that were trapped above the floor levels impacted  could have been evacuated by only one set of four or five units of ZEC-EM, remaining operative over 25, in few minutes.
The Zephinie   Escape Chute (ZEC) 
can operate over 100 floors.  
Can evacuate up 1000 persons per minute, including handicapped ,  injured persons with the same average escape speed.
Ignorance or bad will
can't invalidate demonstrable 
facts.
 



1974
Fire code enclosed ZEC escape chute 
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French Invention
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Los Angeles. CA
 
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1975-2002

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1976-2002
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licensee:  pirates and  liar
 
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Zephinie Escape Chute technologies
Pioneer of high rise buildings mass evacuation

Exhaustive list of existing techniques about high-rise buildings evacuation and escape chutes.

We hope to contribute for a better information of the Media and public opinion.


Overview of building evacuation methods and escape chute devices
This summary don't include hundreds of unpractical patented or not escape devices.
We have archives document in several countries presently not available for inclusion
Feel free to send us any document or feedback

 

Fire code Fire code enclosed enclosed evacuation

Incline Chute or slide escape
Curved or a straight incline
Stairway 

Paris 1838
1950-1970
Uyeda (Japon)
1982  Baker (USA)

Structure Integrated Vertical escape chute  

Cable escape chute
Centrifugal brake - Non mechanic friction brake

Hybrid technique using stairway configuration standards and vertical escape sleeve. Started 1930
Exterior Vertical Escape chutes Elevator and similar mechanical cable apparatus
 
Vertical escape chute technique using single sleeve radial contraction No particular typology

Vertical escape chute technique using single sleeve radial contraction

Aerial rescue
 
Vertical escape chute technique using two  concentric independent sleeve single sleeve producing orthogonal radial contraction Yet not available 
Exterior Vertical spiral escape chute Pneumatic couching - Net
 Mitshubishi corp. Many related injuries 
   

 

Fire code enclosed stairway 

Technique:
slope ramp + tread + landing . Path of evacuation : helicoids .
Stairway present a basic modular unit per floor.
No theoretical high limitation.
In high rise buildings stairways well, air pressurizing only can secure against the many examples having shown stairways neutralized by smoke invasion.   

Evacuation capacity:
Stairway basic unit 2ft(60cn) width: 2000<4000 people/ hour
Depend of physical use fitness.

Fire protection:
2<4 hours fire protection wall and doors
Air pressurized
emergency lighting
Sprinkler protection

Historic development: 1930-1970 NFPA  (USA)

1972 French fire code enforce the two door airlock stairway access  

Most high-rise building worldwide are yet equipped of completely unsafe exit stairways   

Emergency evacuation of the handicapped population:
In place  where permanent or temporary physically impaired population is in majority: hospital, nursing home, etc stairways is dramatically inefficient.
For such reason developed countries stated enforcing particular building's regulations limiting the height and offering inclined ramp of evacuation increasing the overall costs of construction.
Finally in the 80's, the US government enforce a national regulation of "equal right of access" for the 20% for the handicapped population it remains to enforce an equal right of egress that modern evacuation technologies allows.        
 

Hybrid technique using stairway configuration standards and vertical escape sleeve.

 Zephinie's multiple entry evacuation method is an hybrid technique using stairway configuration standards and vertical escape sleeve.

Technique:1973 (France) :
Dual sleeves using interaction of surfaces trough radial elastic reaction + landing

Path of evacuation : vertical lineal
ZEC-ME present a basic modular unit per floor.
No theoretical high limitation
Evacuation capacity:
ZEC-ME  basic unit unit 2ft(60cn) width: 2000<4000 people/ hour
independent of physical use fitness.
Require ground assistance over 2000 people/hour to clear up landing area.    

Historic development:
G. Zephinie 1968-1975 (France)
Fire code enforced as optional compensatory or complementary means of egress (France 1978) 
First high rise building application 34 stories (Otis Elevator Spain circa 1981)
Higher 60 stories Korea 1987 ( ZEC chute provider Otis Elevator Spain)
20 stories general hospital of Havana, Cuba (Otis Elevator Spain circa 1987)

Emergency evacuation of the handicapped population:
Allows mass evacuation of handicapped people 

Still remains the only know  fire code compliant high rise building alternative mass evacuation technology available
 

The ZEC technologies account about 10,000 systems units installed worldwide. Exact numbers  are not available Legal and originally illegal diffusion worldwide of the technology
 Legal exclusive distribution: 
France:1975-1994 : Otis France (Sub. of United technologies Corp. USA)
Benelux: 1984: Otis France (Sub. of United technologies Corp. USA)
Spain: 1975-1994 : Otis Spain (Sub. of United technologies Corp. USA)
Portugal: 1984: Otis Spain (Sub. of United technologies Corp. USA)
Mexico- 1985-1993 Ing. F.Colchero Landa group
Mexico- 1994-1997 Sistemas de Escape Zephinie S.A de C.V
Illegal distribution see The Scandinavian licensee:  pirates and  liar 
1982 Started in  Finland-Sweden:  Ingstrom
National distributors and or independent  companies  using  the originally pirated ZEC technology  by Ingstrom
Australia 90's: Escape Chute Consult Mobilitext(s) Pte.Ltd
Australia 2001: http://www.escape-chute-systems.com/
Turkey:
Singapore :
Business using ZEC transfer technology from contract having not be honored
Korea: Ichun Co  http://www.ichun.co.kr/html/evchute.html

Exterior Vertical Escape chutes

Exterior Vertical Escape chutes

Relative advantages:  immediate evacuation - independent of ground support
Limitation: limited in height for safe operation-  fire protection - weather protection- single level access

Pre-historic period: 1920-1940
Vertical escape chutes based on diaphragm, zigzag and spiral like effect are
tested and abandoned
1967-68 development of the First Vertical Escape Chutes in Japan and France

Vertical escape chute technique using single sleeve radial contraction

1968 (Japan)

Uyeda  patent a single sleeve using a low paced helicoidally metal spring as break

Name: Super Ace S-5

Doc. Uyeda commercial brochure of the 70's

 

 

Click to visit Uyeda Web site

Vertical escape chute technique using two  concentric independent sleeve single sleeve producing orthogonal radial contraction

1973 (France)

G. Zephinie Patent the two concentric sleeve system Vertical escape chute technique using concentric independent sleeves producing orthogonal radial contraction. The strong patents and superior efficientcy of the design will oblige the competition to develop spiral based systems.

1974- 1975  (France)
Original development of vertical escape chute mobile
rescue devices,
Helicopter born vertical escape chute devices, home portable vertical evacuation devices and multiple
entry collapsible escape chute, etc. 

Vertical escape chute  using a spiral like toboggan technique

 1975-1980  (Japon)
 Mitshubishi corp. develop spiral vertical escape chute for marine rescue
1980-90 Uyeda (Japon) develop
Vertical spiral escape chute

1990 ( England?) Vicking   

Chute or slide escape
Curved or a straight incline- open or enclosed

Chute or slide escape
Curved or a straight incline- open or enclosed
Use the slop effect to slow down the chute

Limitation: limited in height for safe operation-  fire protection - weather protection- single level access -Dependent of ground support - Require open ground space 

Several slide chute were experimented during 19th century in France and England circa 1900 use a 100 ft slide chute called "fire bag"
Slide chute are mentioned in China circa 600 years ago.

 Below illustration of the Nouveau Journal des Sapeurs Pompiers  in the year 1838

Paris 1838

1950-1970 (Japon)

Japan is the first country having used  1000's of slide chutes to compensate fire exit deficiencies

http://www.bestco-canada.com/ace-r.html

AGE--R Incline Escape Chute (Descending Angle 45 degree Approx.) Incline Descent Escape Chute Model: ACE-R Longest Made: 322 feet
Uyeda Incline Descent Escape Chute account over 130,000 units installed worldwide.
Bestco Trading Co., Ltd. info@bestco-canada.com
 
Comments: Omitting to mention the existence of technologies used internationally during decades is definitely a questionable procedure in matter of public opinion information on escape chute technologies since the WTC disaster.
Advantages or disadvantages of different technologies are matter of scientific public discussion, not exclusion.
Exclusion and ignorance on evacuation technology allows to present as new "escape chute" product having eventually not advance or eventually backward compared to yet commune technologies.

 

Circa 1982 (USA)
 

http://www.lifechute.com/index2.html

 

Comment:
The company's site mention the product as "best escape chute" "The safety breakthrough in high-rise evacuation" but don't explains scientifically the advantage over similar precedent escape chute and different escape chute technologies.
French and Japanese tested during the 70's airborne and terrace mobile positioning of escape chute and dropped those options. 
Net option in our opinion can present some advantages over plain clothes.
A more sophisticated net option was studded in 1967. But Incline was dropped for better vertical
solution. A vertical chute can be also used in incline position anyway. 

2002 (Israel)

http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/South/10/01/escape.chute.ap/
 

The system consists of a steel-coil chute, 2-1/2 feet in diameter when fully extended, covered in fire-resistant fabric. Mounted in a window on a building, the system has an internal power supply that uncoils the chute automatically when sensors detect smoke or intense heat. It also can be manually opened.
 

Toboggan rigid and pneumatic escape chutes

Weeks following a major fire disaster a novice claim for the solution of helicoids rigid toboggan since hundred years.
Airplane evacuation could be faster by vertical escape systems by the the pneumatic toboggan have the advantage of be used eventually as life raft at sea. 

Cable escape chute
Centrifugal brake - Non mechanic friction brake

Most industrial countries have developed mechanic systems   during the last century.
Work fine if eventually doesn't works, as official records have shown in Europe back in the 70's


Uyeda

Extremely simple friction based devices were tested in the 70's  
Eventually present some analytic design advantages over mechanic systems

Air cushions - Nets - 

Better than nothing but extremely hazardous
 

Parachutes

Emergency Building Escape Parachute could be a better than nothing option for a minority able to use it in desperate situations.

Precision Aerodynamics is obviously a serious company and honestly warn:
The EscapeChute should only be used as an absolute last resort escape vehicle. To put everything into proper perspective, the EscapeChute should only be considered safer than compared to jumping without one.
 http://precision.aerodynamics.com/EscapeChute/escapechute.htm

Aerial rescue

In many case aerial fire rescue could have been used and was not because the well know chance of uncontrollable human behavior .. Existing regulations are not publicly disclosed or officially admitted .
But aerial platforms could be useful to airlift
 firefighter and material as long mass evacuation is secured by other means

Elevator and similar mechanical cable apparatus

Other non mechanical evacuation  devises could be 100 times more efficient  ... no comment

Note: this page is actually in edition phase and shall be divided 

 

Warning!  

ę  Copyright 1973, 2005 by Gerard  J. Zephinie .  All right reserved. No part of this document covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, taping, information storage and retrieval systems - without the written permission of Gerard J. Zephinie.

You are welcome to ask for reproduction authorization  

informez s'il vous plait en cas de reproduction

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Zephinie Escape Chute technologies
Pioneer of high rise buildings mass evacuation